SDL Language Technologies Glossary

Glossary of Technical Terms

Language Technologies Glossary

October 2012

100% match

A match that has a score of 100%. A score of 100% is always an exact match. However, an exact match might not be a 100% match. (If the translation memory or translation unit is penalized, the score is reduced.)


In translation memories (TMs) for SDL TM Server and SDL Trados Studio, a word that is terminated by a period and is in the TM's list of abbreviations. When a TM is presented with source text, the TM recognizes a period that is part of an abbreviation, and so does not use that period to segment the text. Abbreviations are a language resource.


You can specify that a translation memory (TM) recognizes acronyms as tokens. In SDL TMS, an acronym is any uppercase word that is identical in the source and target languages. If a segment of presented text matches a translation unit (TU) in all content except acronyms, the TM registers a 100% match, and uses the acronym from the presented text (rather than from the TU) in the translation. In TMs used by SDL TM Server and SDL Trados Studio, the rules defining acronyms are more complex, and acronyms are handled as a type of recognized token.

activation certificate

A certificate created during offline activation.

activation code

A code (usually a string of numbers and letters) used to activate a license for a product.

ad hoc entry

A term that is added to SDL MultiTerm from a different application, such as Microsoft Word or SDL Trados Studio.

ad hoc scoping

A scoping process performed outside the context of a project. Ad hoc scoping allows for analysis and comparison of approaches before you create a project.


A pre-defined role in SDL MultiTerm. Members of the Administrator server role have access to MultiTerm Administrator and administrator rights on MultiTerm Server.

AIS context

SDL WorldServer: The AIS path plus the name of the asset.

AIS path

Analogous to file path for files, defines a location in an SDL WorldServer Asset Interface System (AIS). An AIS path contains the complete hierarchy of folders from the mount name to the asset.


translation alignment

The creation of translation units (TUs) by examining and segmenting the source and corresponding target texts of previously translated content. The alignment process starts with completed translations. It divides the source and target texts into segments, attempting to determine which segments belong together in order to build an aligned translation memory from the content. The resulting translation memory can be used for future translations.


Feature in Translator’s Workbench that allows you to assess the number of translation matches in a document for translation by comparing the document to an existing translation memory.

analysis band

A classification applied to a segment. Segments that are in the same analysis band have the same unit rates for the purposes of estimating translation time and costs. The analysis band for a segment depends on the source and target language, and on the rating of the match that is found, for example the percentage match in a fuzzy match. All segments are put into analysis bands. Segments that do not have a match in a translation memory are classified into the highest cost band.



translatable item

Content that can be translated. Contrast to reference content or comments. See item category.

Asset Interface System


The framework that SDL WorldServer uses to access content. The AIS provides access that is independent of the repository of the content: file system, database, content management system, and so on.


An SDL TMS synonym for field.


If a user has sufficient access rights to perform an action on configuration settings or stored data (for example to update a TM), the user is said to be authorized to perform the action.


In SDL TMS, a translation project is authorized by a project manager to go ahead (with specified documents, into specified languages). Often, the translation agency also needs to accept the contract before the authorization is considered complete.


The process of applying automatic localization.


In SDL TMS, the matching of source segments in a document with segments in a translation memory when the segments only differ by containing a different acronym, date, number, or other recognized token.

automated translation



Translation without human interaction. Sometimes called machine translation.

automatic localization

The process by which the software can automatically change the format of numbers, dates and times to suit the target language. For example, when translating English to French, a translation editor can replace the decimal point used in English in 3.141 with a comma as used in French, to produce 3,141. Automatic localization is available if the translation memory (TM) supports it for the TM's recognized tokens. SDL TMS does not apply automatic localization. In SDL Trados Studio and TM Server, automatic localization settings are specified per project for each language pair.


Automatically propagate. When a user in a translation editor confirms the translation of a segment, the editor propagates that translation to other identical segments in the document.


In SDL Trados Studio, AutoSuggest is a feature of the translation editor. If AutoSuggest is enabled, then when a translator types in the first letters of a word or phrase, AutoSuggest suggests matching words and phrases, and the translator can quickly insert one of the suggested items. AutoSuggest dynamically updates the suggestions as the translator adds or changes characters. See also, AutoSuggest dictionary.

AutoSuggest dictionary

A file that contains the words and phrases that AutoSuggest can suggest. It has the file name extension .bpm. Usually, you have one AutoSuggest dictionary for each target language in each project.

auto-translated segment

SDL WorldServer: a segment that SDL WorldServer translates automatically, as the source and target texts are identical.


SDL WorldServer: The process by which translations are generated automatically from source content that conforms to established content patterns.

batch task

automatic task

background job

A task that is initiated, and runs to completion, without requiring user interaction. Typically, a batch task (automatic task) is initiated as a result of a change of state detected by the translation memory. Contrast with an interactive task.

batch task sequence

A set of batch tasks which are given a name and are run in sequential order.

batch translation


A task in which the translation application does preliminary, partial translation of content without user interaction, using some combination of translation memories, termbases and automated translation. If an automated translation is used, the translator's task is then to post-edit the content. Typically, a batch translation task is run as preparation for translation, after which the remaining, non-translated content is translated by a translator.

Bilingual Review Document

For reviewers who do not have Studio or WorldServer installed, you can export your document to a bilingual .docx format which can be opened and reviewed in Microsoft Word. The reviewed document can then be imported back into Studio or WorldServer with the updated content.


This is a function, which is only available with network licenses, that allows a customer to loan out a license for use outside of the network (LAN).

borrowing license approval number

This number is generated on the licensing server. It is used by the client to approve the borrowing of a license.

borrowing license request number

This number is generated by the product. It is used to generate a borrowing license approval number on the licensing server.


In SDL TMS, a synonym for a custom workflow stage.

Browser Workbench

An SDL WorldServer program that provides a Web interface for working with translatable items and tasks.

browser-based editor

online editor

An editor that runs within a web browser, and so does not require a lengthy local installation procedure on the local computer. SDL Studio Online is a browser-based translation editor, in contrast to the translation editor in SDL Trados Studio, which is a desktop editor.


Client access license

A client access license (CAL) is a license for one user (client) of a server based software. Usually a single network license has a number of CALs; that number specifies the maximum number of concurrent users.


A set of letters or numbers generated by the My Licenses section of SDL 'My Account' (or from the license generator on the Nalpeiron smartmanage dashboard), which is used to activate a product offline. You need the activation code and installation ID to generate a certificate. A certificate is either an activation certificate or a deactivation certificate.

character entity reference

character entity

In HTML, XML or SGML a symbolic name for characters. Character entity references start with an ampersand and end with a semi-colon. In between the letters represent the character. For example a non-breaking space is represented by an ampersand followed by the letters nbsp, followed by a semi-colon. See also numeric character reference.

compound term

multi-word units

multiple word terms

A term consisting of more than one word, for example "local area network".


one concept per entry paradigm

In a concept-orented termbase, each entry corresponds to a single concept, although an entry may contain multiple synonyms, and homonyms are separated into different entries. MultiTerm is concept-oriented.

concordance match

The result of a concordance search that matches all words in the search phrase, but not necessarily in the same order as in the phrase. The translator can pick a match from the list of matches. See also in-order concordance match.

concordance search

A search through a translation memory (TM) for words or fragments of text within translation units. Contrast with the more common use of a TM, which is to match a whole segment of text at a time. A concordance search is only performed when requested by a user.


In SDL WorldServer, the interface between an installation of an Asset Interface System and a content repository. SDL WorldServer provides many out-of-the-box connectors to systems such as EMC, Documentum and Interwoven TeamSite.


SDL TM Server: A database that holds translation memories. Only used as part of the term TM container.

content repository

A folder, file, database or other holder of content.

context match

A match that takes into account the context within which the match occurs. Usually this means surrounding segments. A context match is even more likely to be correct than a 100% match of a segment. There are different kinds of context match, depending on which aspects of context are taken into account (for example, formatting).

context view

A near-final form of preview of a translation.

conversion program


A software program that converts content from its native format to an intermediate format more suitable for translation. SDL translation programs, such as SDL Trados Studio, run a convertor on each translatable item to convert the contents from native format (for example Microsoft Word) to sdlxliff format.

cost band

In SDL TMS, a synonym for analysis band when costing is enabled.

cost model

Contains the unit data to calculate the translation cost for a defined vendor to translate text for a target locale. A cost model reflects the way that translators charge. For example, it contains different prices for different types of translations. Access to SDL cost models are under access control.

custom field

A field created and maintained by users. Contrast with system field. SDL TMS uses the term attribute for custom field.

custom field template

See field template.

database server

A computer program that provides database services to other computer programs or computers. The term also refers to a computer dedicated to running such a program. The database server is the server in a client/server installation of SDL TM Server and stores all server-based translation memories and termbases.



The opposite (antonym) of activate, activation.

deactivation certificate

A certificate created during offline deactivation. See certificate.

Desktop Workbench

An application that you can use to translate content from SDL WorldServer. From SDL WorldServer, export the content inside a project package, use Desktop Workbench to translate the content, and then import the revised project package back into SDL WorldServer.


The translation status appropriate for a translation that a translator has started but has not finished. Typically, if a segment has a fuzzy match in the TM, the translation software inserts the TM translation into the target segment, and marks the segment as draft.


Document Type Definition

Document Type Definition. A text file that defines the structure, elements and conventions to which an SGML, XML or HTML document must conform. The DTD file is separate from the document it defines. An example of a widely used DTD is the HTML 4.0 DTD, used to define HTML 4.0 documents.

effective membership list

In SDL Studio GroupShare, the sum of all membership lists that apply to an organization or library. The effective membership list is usually the sum of the immediate membership list plus the membership lists from all containing organizations and libraries and organizations. However, at any level, role inheritance can be blocked.

encoding (character encoding)

A set of rules for representing characters in digital form. One common form of character encoding is Unicode.

entry class

MultiTerm entry class

In MultiTerm, a classification of an entry that MultiTerm uses to define access to the entry. Each entry has one entry class. The entry's current class is held as a field in the entry.

entry level

MultiTerm entry level

In MultiTerm, fields that apply to the whole termbase entry. Entry number, entry class and system fields are always stored at entry level. One of three levels in the entry structure.

entry number

concept number

MultiTerm entry number

In MultiTerm, a unique number that MultiTerm assigns to an entry when the entry is created or imported into the termbase. The entry number is stored as an entry level field.

entry, MultiTerm

A MultiTerm entry consists of a term and its definition. (Deprecated) In relation to a translation memory, a synonym for translation unit.

exact match

A match in all aspects of text: characters, punctuation and formatting. In an exact match, the text surrounding the source text might be different from the text surrounding the entry in a TM. (By contrast, a context match requires the same surrounding text.)

exclusion file

In MultiTerm, a file to which invalid entries are saved during the import process. The exclusion file has an .xcl extension.

export definition

(MultiTerm) A stored specification (termbase object) that defines how data is exported from a termbase to a file.


A field holds supplementary data for each translation unit (TU) in a translation memory (TM). For example each TU has a field that contains the date the TU was created. SDL TM Server and SDL Trados Studio maintain some fields automatically (system fields). You can also create and maintain your own fields (custom fields). In SDL TMS, the synonym attribute is used for field.

field template

A set of field definitions that are stored as a template, and which can therefore be used by multiple translation memories. Field templates can hold custom fields only.



A synonym for a translatable file while it is in a translation editor.

file category

See item category.

file path

The name of the file plus the directory path to the file.

file type

The format of a file. This can mean either of the following: The format of the content, for example, a specific XML format. The operating system file type, for example, a .doc file type or a Word file type.

file-based TM

file-based translation memory

A translation memory (TM) that is stored in a file and can be accessed by any user that has access to the file. Contrast to server-based TM.


file type filter

file filter

SDL WorldServer, SDL Project Server, SDL Trados Studio: A program that extracts translatable content from a particular file format, segments the extracted content and uses the segments to produce a translatable item in a form such as an sdlxliff file. The translatable item can be presented to a translation memory and translated using a translation editor. Users of SDL programs can configure filters and create new ones. Typically, the purpose of configuring a filter is to allow or disallow translation of some content.


display filter

Display filter. A specification that selects for display a subset of entries. For example, a filter can select just those segments of a document that have been modified after a certain date. In this sense, a filter contains one or more rules. A filter rule compares the entries against a reference value. When you apply a filter, the application program displays or processes only those entries that match these rules.


Unix filter

Unix filter. A program that processes an input data stream into an output data stream in some well-defined way. Hence, a program that converts a file from one data format to another data format.


The finalize task sequence takes a project to the finalized status. The task sequence updates the main translation memories and generates the target translations.


The last status for a project. When a project has a status of finalized, none of the items in that project can be updated.


One of the licensing technologies used by SDL to license products. It is being phased out and replaced with the Nalpeiron Licensing Service (NLS).

fuzzy band

A range for a fuzzy match, for example, 75% to 84%. In SDL TM Server, there is one set of fuzzy bands for all languages in a project.

fuzzy index

An index that allows you to find misspelled or transposed terms during a fuzzy search or wildcard search.

fuzzy match

A match that is less than 100%. A fuzzy match has a percentage, for example, it is a 75% match, or a 90% match. For a translator, translating a segment that has a fuzzy match is typically easier than translating a segment that has no match, but is more difficult than translating an exact match. A fuzzy match requires more effort and probably needs editing.

fuzzy match threshold

The lowest percentage of a match for the matching text to be used as a fuzzy match. If the match is less than this percentage (which is typically about 75%), then there is no fuzzy match for the text.

fuzzy match value

fuzzy-match value

match value

See above under "fuzzy match"

fuzzy search

A type of search by which the application can find terms that are similar or identical to the search text.

ghost tag

An image that represents a missing markup tag. When you delete one tag of a tag pair, the translation editor converts the deleted tag into a ghost tag to match the tag that remains. You can restore the ghost tag. In the translation editor, a ghost tag looks like a grayed-out tag.


Words are homonyms of each other if they have the same spelling but different meanings, for example, resign - to sign again, and resign - to leave voluntarily. Normally in SDL MultiTerm , there is a separate termbase entry for each meaning of a homonym.

import definition

Termbase object that is used to specify import parameters. For example, the import definition specifies how to treat import entries that have entry numbers that already exist in the termbase. The import definition can be saved to the file system as an XDI file.

in context exact match

ICE match

In SDL WorldServer, a type of exact match that is also a complete context match. If necessary, SDL WorldServer ranks multiple possible matches to find the most exact match, based on the most complete context matching.

inline tag

A markup tag that forms part of a segment. Contrast with structure tag. Common uses of inline tags are to format text, to describe special characters, or to reference an image or other hyperlink. Formatting tags and hyperlinks come in tag pairs. Special character tags and reference tags are usually standalone tags.

in-order concordance match

In SDL World Server, a concordance match that contains all words in the same order within the phrase.

input model

An input model is an SDL MultiTerm feature that defines what fields are displayed to the user. It helps you control the entry of data into termbase entries. Input models are termbase-specific. You can create any number of input models for use with a particular termbase. Different input models can be used by different user groups, ensuring that users only have access to the fields that correspond to their area of expertise.

installation ID

A unique code generated by the Nalpeiron filecheck API which is product and computer specific. This means that a different product on the same computer will produce a different installation code, and vice versa. This code is used when generating activation or deactivation certificates using the Nalpeiron dashboard or smartmanage dashboard or within the My Licenses section of SDL My Account.

interactive task

A task that is initiated by a user at the screen. Contrast with batch task.

intermediate translation document


A file format for translation memories and for holding bilingual text. ITD is used by SDLX and SDL TMS. It is a precursor to sdlxliff.


Corresponds to one file, document or other text item that is being translated using desktop translation software, or that accompanies the translatable content. See also, item category. The source of an item is a file, database record, or some other data form. A translatable item needs to be converted into a format such as sdlxliff before a translator can use a translation editor to translate the content.

item category

An item is categorized to show how it is used in the tranlsation process. One categorization of items is: Translatable (the item is to be translated), Localizable (to be translated outside the application), Reference (for reference only), Instruction (contains instructions for the translator).

language pair

A source language and a target language, for example English to French, or English (GB) to French (Swiss). A language pair has direction: English to French is not the same as French to English.

language resource

Note: this is not a term used in TMS translation memories. Language resources are a set of settings in a translation memory. Each language resource is a list of one of the following: abbreviations, ordinal followers, segmentation rules, variables.

language resources template

A set of language resources settings stored apart from any specific TM settings. See template. This term is not used in SDL TMS translation memories.

language variant


A specific form of a language used in a culture, for example German is a language (code de), and German as used in Austria is a language variant (code de-AT).


Termbase object that specifies how you want the entries in your termbase to display in MultiTerm and MultiTerm Online. Use the Layout Wizard to create or modify layouts.You can save the layout to the file system as an XDL file.

leverage level


The extent to which content can be translated against a TM. The higher the leverage level, the more the TM content is reusable. Leverage levels are generally categorized as High: ICE, SPICE; Medium: exact, 100%; Low: interval fuzzy ranges.


resource library

In SDL Studio GroupShare and its components: a container for resources. A library uses a membership list for specifying permissions. A library can contain resources and other libraries. A library is contained in another library or in an organization.


An entity or object used to validate whether a product is allowed to run. In Nalpeiron, the license is stored on the hard disc in a licensing table. The initial license is set up by the Filechck DLL when the product accesses it. Also used to define the programmatic object used by the application which represents the license.

licensing server

This is a computer on the LAN within a domain. The licensing server is activated using the Licensing Server Toolkit, after which any other computer that requires licensing (client) can connect to the server and request a license (when concurrent licensing is used). Also, the server may license any computer which is connected to the LAN and in this case, seats are not taken into account.

Licensing Server Toolkit

This is a standalone application which, when installed, sets up a computer to act as a licensing server on a LAN. It also allows an administrator to activate/deactivate a network license for a product on that computer and provides other functions to support network licenses (e.g. generating Borrowing Numbers).

local termbase

Type of termbase that is typically used in a single-user setup where data is stored on the local computer. Use MultiTerm to create local termbases. See also Remote termbase.

local translation memory

local TM

A translation memory (TM) that is stored on the translator's computer. Usually a local TM can only be used by one user at a time. Compare to server-based translation memory.



A geopolitical area. In a computer: the settings that define a language, country and other geopolitical variants. Also the two-or four-letter language code used to identify a language or language and language variant. The definition of a culture includes the language variant and the default encoding used to store content in this language (for example, UTF-8).

main translation memory

main TM

A translation memory that is stored on the application database server and is available for all projects. Contrast with project TM.


Content in a translatable item that should not be exposed to the translator for translation. This includes layout and formatting information, style definitions, and font information. Markup is almost always coded in the form of markup tags. Embeddable markup is equivalent to an inline tag; non-embeddable markup is equivalent to a structure tag.


An equivalence between two segments of text, usually between a segment of presented text and a source segment in a translation memory. A match has a match score, which is between the fuzzy match threshold and 100%.

match (filters)

In relation to filters: an equivalence between an entry (for example, a term in a termbase or a translation unit in a translation memory) and a filter rule. Unlike text matches, a filter match does not have a score.

match band

Segments that are in the same match band have the same unit rates for the purposes of estimating translation time and costs. The match band of a segment depends on the source and target language, and on the quality of match that is found (for example the percentage match in a fuzzy match). Only segments that have a match in a translation memory are classified into match bands.

match lookup


The process in which presented text is compared with translation units in a TM.

match score

A percentage value that describes the level of equivalence in a match.

membership list

In SDL Studio GroupShare and its components: a list of users and their roles in an organization or library. Membership lists specify user permissions for resources. A membership list can only add permissions; it cannot remove any. Membership lists are valid for lower level (contained) organizations and libraries unless role inheritance is blocked.


To join two adjacent segments into a single segment.


A product feature, for example Spell Checking, that can be licensed individually. Nalpeiron supports up to 100 modules per product.


A top level folder in the Asset Interface System (AIS) that defines the connection point between AIS and a content repository. Analogous to the term mount in UNIX.

MTMaster database

MultiTerm master database. In a client/server installation, MTMaster resides on the database server and references all termbases that are stored there. When the MultiTerm client is used as a stand-alone system, MTMaster is stored locally as an MDB file and references all local Jet termbases. See also Database server.

My Account

This is a web portal provided by SDL to allow customers to purchase and access licenses for certain products. Customers can also download software, purchase and access our support services, place and view orders, request and view sales quotations and purchase and view SDL Certification and Training.

Nalpeiron Dashboard

This is a website (activation staging site) which allows for the management of product license filechck DLLs and activation codes amongst other things. This is the control center for product licensing using Nalpeiron technologies.

network license

A network license can be used by anyone on the network, up to the limit specified in the license. Network licenses require a licensing server to be running to count the concurrent usage of licenses.

not translated

A translation status: no translation has been done on the segment. Typically this means that the segment has no translation in the TM, and the translator has not yet produced any translation.


If number recognition is enabled for a TM, the TM recognizes a number in the source text as a token. If a segment of presented text matches a translation unit in the TM, except for the value of a number, the TM registers an exact match. For example, if the TM has 'Jane has 5 apples', then it finds an exact match for the presented text 'Jane has 99 apples'. If the TM settings allow it, the translation editor might also auto-localize numbers.

numeric character reference

In HTML, a numeric representation for characters, given by a number surrounded by an ampersand and a semi-colon. For example an ampersand followed by the characters #160 followed by a semi-colon represents a non-breaking space. See also, character entity reference.

ordinal follower

Note: ordinal followers are not a feature of SDL TMS. A word that follows a period which itself follows a number, and signifies that the number is an ordinal (first, second, third...), rather than a cardinal (one, two, three...). Its use can be seen by considering the date expressed in German as 4. Juni. If Juni were not in the list of ordinal followers, '4.' would denote the end of a segment, and Juni would start another segment. Ordinal follower lists are a language resource.


In SDL Studio GroupShare and its components, a container, analogous to a folder, for users, resources and libraries. Organizations can also contain other organizations. All organizations except the top level one belong to another organization and ultimately the top level organization contains all other organizations, users and resources.


A collection of files packaged together and sent to a user or another system. The files in any one package belong to the same project. Examples of packages are project package and return package.

path name

The full path name is the name of the file plus the directory path to the file.

path normalization

SDL WorldServer: To normalize a path is to override the default AIS context for an asset. By default each asset has its own AIS context. When you create a normalized path, you force different assets to have the same AIS context, so different assets can share their translation units in a TM. This is significant when you do in-context matches.


To apply a penalty score. You can penalize translation memories and translation units.


penalty score

A percentage taken away from the score of a match between a translation unit and source text segments. SDL Trados Studio can apply penalties for a variety of conditions: for example a penalty for the translation unit or translation memory used for the match, for formatting differences, and so on. Penalties are specified as project settings.


In SDL Trados Studio, a proprietary refinement of context match that includes a comparison with previously translated files.


access right

A right that a user or program has to access an application program, data, files or other resource. Common permissions (access rights) are read, write, delete. Which permissions are required for certain activities on a resource is determined by the software. In SDL TM Server, a user's permissions to a resource are granted by the user's role in a resource library, as specified in an applicable membership list.


SDL WorldServer: A representation of a markup tag (not the tag itself. For example, if text contains markup tags <I>...</I>, then WorldServer replaces the tags with placeholders: {1}...{2}. The placeholders convey the position of the markup tags without presenting the information for translation.

placeholder tag

SDL WorldServer: A markup tag that is inline but, unlike most inline tags, is not a formatting tag. Often a placeholder tag is standalone, for example the img tag.


Software that adds functionality, for example to an application. Users or third parties can create plug-ins for SDL TM Server and fro SDL WorldServer by using the SDK.


A batch task sequence that SDL TM Server runs when a translatable item is added to a project, to prepare it for a translator. At the end of preparation the translatable item has been converted to an sdlxliff file, analyzed, and populated with the results of batch translation.

preparatory work


lookup text

For example: presented content, presented segment, presented text. Source language content that is to be translated. A major use of a translation memory is to find a match between presented text and source text stored in the translation memory.


A representation of a file in translation that shows how the file will appear after translation. There can be different levels of preview, for example Raw preview (showing the data), Draft preview (showing the result as rendered, but not as published), Standard preview (showing the result as it will be generated).


A project contains a collection of source language files, and associated files (resource files), which SDL TM Server manages as a unit. All files in the same project have the same source language, but can be translated to multiple languages. Unit costs for translation are defined per project, for each target language. Projects have a life-cycle. They go through project stages in a workflow.

project folder

The Windows folder that holds all the project details, assets and working files.

project package

A collection of the files needed for a translation, including the translatable items, translation memories, termbases, and instructions, packaged together in a form that can be sent to a user or another system as part of a translation project. (Usually this means they are put in a zip file.) All the files in one project package belong to the same project. All SDL translation applications allow a project manager to export and import project packages.

project template

A complete set of project settings, which can be applied as the default settings when creating a project.

project TM

In SDL TM Server and SDL Trados Studio, a project TM contains all translations from the main translation memories for the target language. It is the TM used by a translator and is usually updated by the translator with new translations. At the end of the project, new translations in the project TM can be incorporated into one or all of the main TMs. Internally, the project TM is a sequence of TMs, modeled on the sequence of main TMs.


Pseudo-translation is a procedure (mainly used in software localization) which simulates how a translated document will look after translation and how much extra engineering work will be required before actual translation is done. This can help in the planning of the project to set appropriate estimates and expectations.

quality model

A set of rules that categorizes translation errors to produce quantifiable measures based on the quality of a translation.


QuickPlace is a feature of the translation editor. In the editor, you can press a shortcut key and the editor displays a pop-up menu of items that are suitable for insertion, such as a formatting markup tag or a suggested translation for a recognized token.

QuickPlace item

In the translation editor, an item whose translation is suggested by QuickPlace. If the translation memory treats some text as a recognized token, the translation of that text is often a QuickPlace item.

recognized token

placeable (obs.)

A short piece of text, in one of a pre-defined set of formats, that a translation memory (TM) treats as a single word (token). For example, if dates are enabled as a recognized token in a TM, the TM recognizes Monday 1 January, 1900 as one word. Where a segment of presented text contains recognized tokens, a TM can find a match based on a pattern rather than exact wording. For example, if the TM has a match for He arrived on '1 January 1900', then the TM will provide a translation for the presented text 'He arrived on 2 February 2010'. For translation memories that use sdlxliff format, (such as SDL Trados Studio), the translation editor's QuickPlace shortcut provides suggested translations for recognized tokens. Translation memories in SDL TMS translate recognized tokens automatically, without presenting them to the translation editor. To change how a translation memory handles recognized tokens: in SDL TMS, change the configuration settings; in SDL GroupShare Project Server, SDL GroupShare TM Server or SDL Trados Studio, change translation memory settings and project settings.

regular expression

A way of describing a pattern of text, for example: "any five letter word that starts with a capital letter, and ends with a digit". Regular expressions can specify sophisticated text patterns. For this reason they are used to specify segmentation rules. Regular expressions are widely used and are well documented. See, for example,

Regulator Review Bundle

If you are translating for a regulated industry in SDL Trados Studio, you can create and send a bundle of documents to an external regulator for review. A bundle is a zipped file that contains a specific collection of documents needed by the regulator for review. The documents can then be reviewed outside of Studio in Microsoft Word.

re-index TM

re-index translation memory

Build the fuzzy indexes in a translation memory (TM) from scratch. The system also scans existing translation units (TUs) for recognized tokens. For example, if you enable variable recognition and then re-index the TM, the TM recognizes variables in all TUs.



In a MultiTerm context, reorganizing a termbase updates the fuzzy search index. This speeds up fuzzy searches.


SDL WorldServer tries to improve fuzzy matches by adjusting the presented text, for example by changing punctuation or capitalization. Such an adjustment is called a repair. By using repairs, SDL WorldServer can improve the score of a match (even up to 100%). Repairs are specified for each language pair. See also, penalize.

repeated segment

The first occurrence of a segment that has repetitions.


An occurrence of a segment that has been translated previously. Usually the term refers to repetitions within one translatable item, but sometimes it can be used to refer to repetitions across a number of items.


In SDL Studio GroupShare and its components, one of the following: translation memory, project, termbase, language resource template or field template. A resource belongs to a resource library or to an organization.

resource group

In SDL Studio GroupShare and its components, a generic term that covers resource libraries and organizations.

return package

A package that a member of a project sends to the project manager on completion of translation. See also project package.


role (SDL Studio GroupShare)

In SDL Studio GroupShare and its components: a name for a collection of permissions. An organization or library has a list of users and roles that apply to that organization or library. Some roles (for example, administrator) have a fixed set of permssions; other roles can be edited. Roles are defined on a system-wide basis. Usually the administrator gives each role a name that describes a job, such as translator or TM manager. See also, membership lists.


The process of comparing content to be translated with past translations, to assess the remaining translation cost and effort.

SDL WorldServer launcher


SDL WorldServer launcher for Windows is an application provided with SDL WorldServer that allows you to use third-party applications to edit translatable items.


A format for SDLXLIFF files, and the file extension for sdlxliff formatted files. Sdlxliff is compliant with XLIFF version 1.2, with some added standards-compliant extensions.


Text that is a single translation unit for the purposes of finding a match in a translation memory. Usually a segment corresponds to a sentence. Translation memories store translations by segment, and segments are also the unit for matching presented text with stored translations. In a translation editor, each segment is displayed on a separate row.

segment identifier


In SDL WorldServer, a label that defines the usage context in which a segment is to be translated. Applying a SID to a segment identifies the context for the segment. By default, SID support is enabled in SDL WorldServer, though it cannot be used without an installed SID-based filter.

segment preferred in-context exact (SPICE) match

SPICE match

SID preferred ICE match

An ICE match that is found by using the SID to define the usage context. SID must be enabled in SDL WorldServer to find SPICE matches.


The process of dividing text (usually source text) into segments.

segmentation rule

The regular expressions that, for a language, define those text patterns that constitute a segment. In SDL TM Server and SDL Trados Studio, segmentation rules are stored in language resources.

server-based TM

server-based translation memory

A translation memory (TM) that is stored on a TM server. A server-based TM can be used concurrently by more than one user. Compare to local TM.

server-based translation memory

Server-based translation memories are located on GroupShare servers on your network. Users access server-based translation memories through a network or through the Internet. You can work online, interactively, with a server-based translation memory as easily as if it was local to your computer. This means that however widely distributed project team members are, they can all work with the very latest versions of the same translation memories.


A sequence of words ('word run') taken from reference text, for example, 'the cat sat'. In SDL WorldServer, fuzzy matching uses shingles to select match candidates instead of using just the words that are in common.

software development kit


A defined and documented set of application programming interfaces (API) for extending or interacting with software. SDL WorldServer, SDL TM Server and SDL Project Server have published SDKs.


Descriptive of the original, untranslated item. For example: source content, source language, source segment, source text. Contrast with target. See also, language pair.


To divide, usually applied to a segment. Some applications allow you to split segments. This can be useful during the translation process to facilitate the translation. SDL WorldServer can also automatically split segments. It does this to look for higher quality matches, and so increase the leverage of the translation memory. Contrast with merge.


In SDL GroupShare Project Server, a stage is the period between the start and end of a task (not a single point in time). The workflow consists of stages and a translatable item goes through stages as it progresses along the workflow.

standalone tag

markup tag that can legitimately exist without another closing tag, for example a break tag in HTML. Contrast with tag pair.


The common root form of a number of words. For example go, going, gone all have the same stem, go. A translation memory can use stems to find matching entries containing word variations. (Verb) To find the stem of a number of words. Stemming can generate a larger number of match hits.

structure tag

A markup tag that exists between segments, and often defines a segment break. Examples are: line break tag, table tag. Contrast with inline tag.


Two different terms of the same language referring to the same "thing" (concept). Synonyms should be stored within the same entry as individual terms. Sample: "monitor" and "screen".A word that means the same or nearly the same as another word, such as bucket or pail. Because MultiTerm is a concept-oriented system, synonyms are stored in the same entry.

system field

In the context of a SDL translation memory, a field that the translation memory creates and maintains automatically. Contrast with custom field. In SDL TMS, the term attribute is used as a synonym for field.

system objects

These are termbase objects which MultiTerm provides for use with all termbases. For example there are system layouts, system export definitions, system import definitions and a system filter. If you select a termbase object type from the navigation tree in the Catalog view, all available objects of the type are displayed on the right. The word System appears in the Owner column for all system objects.


markup tag

A keyword assigned to a portion of text, used to specify text attributes (for example bold format), or text flow attributes (for example a page break). Tags can be categorized into the following, overlapping, categories: Inline or structure; Standalone or one of a tag pair; Translatable or non-translatable.

tag pair

A matching pair of markup tags. Most markup tags come as a tag pair: one opening tag and its matching closing tag, for example <b> to represent the start of bold text, and </b> to represent the end of bold text. Contrast with standalone tag.


Descriptive of the translated or destination item, for example: target content, target language, target segment. Contrast with source. See also, language pair.

target language

Refers to the language a project is to be translated to. For example, if your project is to translate a manual from English to Spanish, Spanish is the target language.

target language term

A translation of the search term in the currently selected target language. You can apply special formatting and display properties to target language terms and other target language information.

target term

First equivalent of the search term in the currently selected target language.


In SDL TMS: the whole workflow to achieve the translation of one SDL TMS item into one language. See also, workflow stage.


Termbase Exchange Format

TermBase eXchange. An XML standard, published as ISO 30042, for the interchange of terminology data, including detailed lexical information.

TBX files

TBX is a Terminology Markup Language. It is the open, XML-based standard for exchanging structured terminological data that allows the transfer of information from one termbase to another.


A template is a set of settings that you can use as a basis for settings in a resource such as a translation memory. The behavior of a template with regard to the applied settings differs between SDL applications: In Studio and GroupShare, when you link a resource to a template, you cause the resource to use the settings in the template. When you change the settings in the template, the corresponding settings in all linked resources are also changed. However, if you change the settings by editing a resource, you break the link between the resource and the template. In TMS, when you use a template for a resource, the system copies the settings from the template to the resource, but there is no ongoing link between the resource and the template.


terminology database


A database used to store terminology and related information.

termbase object

Any of the following: filter, layout, input model, export definition and import definition. They allow you to work with termbase data. Termbase objects are based on the termbase definition and are termbase-specific.

TM container

A named collection of TMs provided by one SDL TM server. TM container and TM are analogous to folder and file. An installation can have more than one TM container.

TM editor

The SDL TM Server editor that you can use to edit a TM. It is similar to the Translation Editor.

TM sequence

TM cascade

TM group

A named collection of TMs that are searched in a specified order.

TM server

A program that provides access to TMs. One TM server can provide access to TMs that are on different database servers.


Translation Memory Exchange

TMX (TM exchange) is an industry standard format for the exchange of translation memories. SDL TM Server can import a translation memory that is in TMX format, and can export its translation memories into TMX format files.


A token corresponds to a word, or short sequence of words and punctuation marks, in translatable text. When a translation memory (TM) is applied to source text, the TM analyzes the source into tokens. This analysis is independent of the analysis into segments. You can configure a TM to recognize text patterns as single tokens. For example, you can provide an expression that provides a definition of the patterns of text for dates. Such text patterns are called recognized tokens. You can provide rules for translating recognized tokens.

translation editor

An editor that enables translators to translate bilingual files, such as sdlxliff files.

translation kit

SDL WorldServer. A collection of the files needed for a translation, including the translatable items, translation memories, termbases, and instructions, packaged together in a form that can be sent to a user or another system as part of a translation project. WorldServer translation kits can be exported as compressed files. All the files in one kit belong to the same project. Project managers can import and export kits individually, or as part of a project workflow. See also project package.

translation memory


A translation memory (TM) is a file or database containing source language text segments and translated versions of the text segments. Each pair of source and translated segments is called a translation unit (TU). In a TM, the source language segments are all in one language. A TM may contain translations into many languages, but often has just one target language. A TM also maintains supplementary data for each TU, such as who created the TU, and when. This data is held in fields. A user can also add user defined data to TUs. TMs allow translators to reuse translations, thus reducing translation time and effort, and increasing consistency.

translation status (confirmation level)

The status of review and approval that you can assign to a segment or to a document to indicate the degree of confidence that you have in the translation. The translation statuses of the segments in a document automatically update the translation statuses of the document. Not used in SDL TMS.


A file type that was used for TRADOS TagEditor files, and also the file name extension for those files.


translation unit

TM entry

An entry in a translation memory (TM), consisting of a segment of source text, its translation text, and supplementary TM data such as translation date. In TMX, translation unit is equivalent to the element tu. (Less common) text which is a single unit for the purposes of matching, equivalent to segment.


A standard for representing characters. It covers most of the world's written languages. A Unicode character is a character that has a Unicode representation.

usage context

The usage context of a source segment is the other content that surrounds that segment. The surrounding text provides insight into the meaning of the segment. SDL WorldServer considers the usage context when it searches for an ICE match for a segment.


Unicode Transformation Format - 8

An encoding for Unicode characters in one to four bytes. The number of bytes depends on the Unicode character. All the ASCII character codes are single byte UTF-8 codes.


A feature of translation memories (TMs) that are used in SDL TM Server and SDL Trados Studio. SDL TMS does not use variables. However, the way that SDL TMS treats acronyms is similar to the way that SDL TM Server treats variables. A variable is a word or phrase defined in the variable list of a TM. A TM considers a variable to be the same in all its languages. Where a translation unit includes a variable, the TM will substitute one variable for another variable if that provides a match. For example, assume the following are true: - 'Mary Brown' and 'John Smith'are variables in a TM. - The TM has a translation for 'The head manager is Mary Brown.' - The presented text is: 'The head manager is John Smith.' Then the TM uses the translation for 'The head manager is Mary Brown.', replaces 'Mary Brown' with 'John Smith' in the translated text and registers an exact match. Variable lists are a language resource.


A display of information, menus and toolbars that help the user perform a related set of tasks, for example: Project view Editor view


A model of the stages through which translatable items progress in the translation process.

workflow stage

In SDL TMS, one stage through which tasks progress in the translation process.

xcd file

XCD files hold the settings used in a SDL MultiTerm conversion session.

xdf file

The file type for a filter definition file saved in XML format.

xdi file

In SDL MultiTerm, the file type for an import definition file saved in XML format.

xdl file

Layout definition file for SDL MultiTerm.

xdm file

Input model file for SDL MultiTerm.

xdt file

Termbase definition file for SDL MultiTerm.

xdx file

Export definition file for SDL MultiTerm.


A syntax for specifying locations in an XML document. It includes path expressions (analogous to file path expressions) and a number of built-in functions. XPath is an important part of XSLT.

XTranslated unit

PerfectMatch unit


PerfectMatch units (XUs) are translation units that appear in your bilingual document after having PerfectMatch applied. PerfectMatch units represent segment matches that come from the previous version of the bilingual document rather than the translation memory. Because the PerfectMatch process includes a check for context, XU segment matches represent those parts of your document that typically need no further translation or editing.